Friday, July 24, 2020

10 Natural Ways to Stay Focused and Sharp

10 Natural Ways to Stay Focused and Sharp February 03, 2020 Thomas Barwick/Stone/Getty Images More in Self-Improvement Holistic Health Happiness Meditation Stress Management Spirituality Inspiration Brain Health Technology Relationships There are many natural ways to stay focused and sharp. From alternative therapies to herbal remedies, these natural approaches can help boost your productivity, protect your brain health as you age, and improve your overall wellbeing. Nutrition to Stay Focused Getting your fill of certain types of foods may help you stay focused and sharp. Fish and Flaxseed Flaxseed  and oily fish like salmon and sardines are high in omega-3 fatty acids, a type of essential fatty acid that plays a key role in preserving brain health. A report published in Advances in Nutrition in 2013, for example, indicates that omega-3 fatty acids may help fight aging-related impairment in brain function. Whats more, some research shows that omega-3 fatty acids may help improve attention.?? In a study published in Neuropsychopharmacology in 2015, omega-3 supplementation was found to reduce symptoms of inattention in children.?? Antioxidant-Rich Foods Antioxidant nutrients may offer some protection against an aging-related decline in cognition (i.e., the set of mental abilities associated with processes like attention, memory, and problem-solving), according to a research review published in the European Journal of Nutrition in 2013.?? Looking at 10 previously published studies, the reviews authors found some evidence that antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C and vitamin E may help slow the rate of cognitive decline. Green Tea A rat-based study published in Brain and Cognition in 2008 suggests that green tea consumption may enhance learning and memory.?? Furthermore, a pilot study published in the journal Nutrients in 2014 found that daily green tea intake helped improve cognitive function in a small group of older adults.?? Natural Remedies for Brain Health A number of herbal remedies show promise as a natural approach to staying focused and sharp. Heres a look at the science behind two of those remedies. Curcumin Sourced from the herb turmeric, curcumin has been found to enhance cognitive function in some preliminary research. Additionally, a preliminary study published in the International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics in 2015 determined that curcumin may increase brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid found to have beneficial effects on cognitive function).?? Rosemary Daily intake of the herb rosemary may boost cognitive performance and sharpen memory in older adults, according to a small study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food in 2012.?? How Rosemary Improves Memory and Cognition Lifestyle Practices for Better Concentration Lifestyle behaviors can also help you stay focused and sharp. Getting Sufficient Sleep A great deal of research has shown that sleep deprivation can have a profoundly negative impact on cognitive function, including damaging effects on focus and memory.?? Exercising A study published in Neurology in 2010 suggests that walking at least six miles per week may preserve memory in older adults. The study also found that regular exercise helped fight aging-related shrinkage in brain size.?? Managing Your Stress Like skimping on sleep, letting your everyday stress go unchecked can greatly impair cognitive function.?? To stay focused and sharp, its crucial to take everyday steps to lower your stress levels. Mind-Body Techniques for Greater Focus Not only helpful in relieving stress, but the following mind-body techniques may also help you stay focused and sharp. Meditation In a study of 40 undergraduate students (published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America in 2007), researchers observed that five days of 20-minute meditation training helped improve attention, as well as lower anxiety, fatigue, anger, and depression.?? Tai Chi Published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine in 2015, a review of nine previously published studies shows that taking up tai chi may help improve attention, memory, and other measures of cognitive ability in healthy adults.???

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Nature Of The World - 2381 Words

Does man define his own meaning in life? Moreover, throughout history, the nature of the world has been in debate. Philosophers have been thinking about the nature of the world for thousands of years. The first philosophers have the belief that the nature of the world comes from natural things such as water, fire, and air. Socrates came up with this idea of existentialism, where existence precedes essence. Rene Descartes built upon this idea in stating that man should have extreme doubt because then we will know that something is real, such as a person s body, is it really there? But, no one can doubt their own mind because it is what is doing the doubting. Descartes states that a man with a mind will be â€Å"like masters and possessors of nature†. If a man is self-surpassing then they can be the possessor of nature, but one must do this without the hubris of a Homeric hero(human condition of mortality). Jack London writes about the existentialist view of the world in his sho rt story â€Å"How to Build a Fire†, by having a prideful man who is struggling with his mind-body dualism. London uses plot, Character/POV, and symbolism to convey the theme that man should not reject his physical being because of pride in his mind by having the man not imagine he has a body because of his excessive pride in his mind that is undefeatable to nature because of his mind and in the end he dies. Jack London uses the plot to convey the theme pride goes before the fall by having the man fight hisShow MoreRelatedThe Nature Of Cyber World1411 Words   |  6 PagesWith the overwhelming increase in the number of people of using internet for their day to day work and run businesses, it has become equally important to understand the nature of cyber world we are living in. The internet is currently being used for all sorts of activities such as browsing, messaging, music, news and on top of it for financial transactions. This is the reason why many people are getting this opportunity to misuse it for the purposes it not meant for i.e. for harming others by usingRead MoreThe Beauty Of Nature And The World1829 Words   |  8 PagesA: In literature it transitioned from romanticism, writing about the beauty of nature and the world, to realism, writing about the realities and dark unfair sides of the world. C: This was a big change in the literature and some people were not ready to see what they dismissed on a daily basis. T: Gender roles were shown in literature more and showed how women and men were characterized into jobs and roles and showed the disadvantage of being a woman rather than a man but it wasn’t just gender rolesRead MoreNature Is the Greatest Teacher of the World!!1391 Words   |  6 PagesNATURE is the greatest teacher of the worl d!! â€Å"Observe the nature carefully With its big and small creatures That teaches us the great lessons of life† Nowadays due to rat race in day-to-day living, human beings are alienated from nature. It teaches us real selflessness, true renunciation and sacrifice etc. We can thus learn a great deal from nature. Nature is a silent teacher, friend, philosopher and guide. It removes all our pain, agonies, despairs and grieves. If we become merged with it we findRead MoreThe World Wildlife Fund For Nature2378 Words   |  10 Pagesfield, a leader in helping heal and preserve the world we live in, particularly working with endangered species. Helping to maintain, and boost their numbers in the wild, as well as possibly working on a preservation, where I could work closely with others to ensure that my grandchildren will be able to see wildlife. THis being said I believe that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is the best place for me to be. The World Wildlife Fund for Nature is dedicated to saving endangered wildlife, conservingRead MoreNature Versus Nurture in Brave New World1182 Words   |  5 PagesBrave New World depicts a world in which Resident Controller Mustapha Mond governs a society where every aspect of an individuals life, from decantation onward, is determined by the State. Pre destination by God has been replaced by predestination by the government. Through the Bokanovsky Process, future-citizens are made with a virtually inexistent level of individuality. Once decanted and technologically altered to comply with their pre-determined caste, children are brought up and conditionedRead MoreAnalyzing Quine s Thesis On The Nature Of The World900 Words   |  4 PagesThings and their Place in Theories This paper discusses Quine’s thesis on the nature of our ideas and how they are used in order to make sense of the world, and decide what can be said to be reality. Quine begins his paper by discussing our knowledge of external things and how we can come to know what we know. On page two of Things and their Place in Theories, Quine states, â€Å"there is nothing we can be more confident of than external things,† meaning that the pieces of knowledge we can be mostRead MoreThe Spirit And Beauty Of Nature, And The Power Of The Natural World1172 Words   |  5 PagesThe Romantic worldview emphasized the glory and beauty of nature, and the power of the natural world. A branch within Romanticism was Transcendentalism and its followers believed that â€Å"unifying principles could be found in the natural world, which became a sacred space that pointed to the immanent presence of the divine† (Sayre 877). Aspects found in nature have the ability to cause an individual to have a revelation as to why their life is unpleasant and allows them to find their purpose in lifeRead MoreWorld Religions : The Nature Divine And The Existence Of Evil275 6 Words   |  12 PagesWorld Religions: The Nature the of Divine and the Existence of Evil There are many different religions of the world and religion is found in societies of the past and present. Many of the religions today have been practiced for years. I will focus on seven different religions in this paper and how they each express the nature of the divine and how each religion views and deals with the existence of evil. Nature of the divine refers to God or Gods and their presence. Some religions are monotheisticRead More ¬Ã‚ ¬Explain the Nature, Character and Spatial Distribution of World Cities936 Words   |  4 PagesExplain the nature, character and spatial distribution of world cities Closely associated with the process of globalisation is the notion of ‘World cities’. World cities are those such as London, New York and Tokyo where urban function has moved beyond the national scale to become a part of the international and global system. They are centres of culture, economics, employment, tourism, transport and communications and have been referred to as the command centres of the World’s borderless economyRead MorePortrayal of nature and natural world in Plaths poem Tulips905 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Explore the way Sylvia Plath presents nature and the natural world in her poem ‘Tulips’ ‘Tulips’ is a poem that was written by Sylvia Plath in 1961 and was published after her death in 1965. Plath wrote this poem while recovering in hospital after recently having a miscarriage and having an appendectomy. This poem, set in the hospital, expresses Plath’s feelings and emotions at this time in her life. Nature and the natural world are themes, which are portrayed, in a negative light in many of

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Rennaissance and Mannerist Essay - 597 Words

The art work from the 1400s to the 1600s showed a drastic change after 1520 when Mannerism was brought about. After a while the Mannerist style was known to not be such a good thing. People saw the paintings as not classical and distorted or out of proportion. Mannerism seemed to coincide with a period of political and religious unrest which lead to and age of anxiety and crisis where the clarity and confidence of the High Renaissance was lost (Benton and DiYanni 37-38). Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Parmigianino show some differences in Renaissance and Mannerism with their works of art of the Madonna. Leonardo da Vincis Madonna of the Rocks was painted in 1483 at the time of the High Renaissance. Everything is directly proportional†¦show more content†¦The column in the background on the right symbolizes the torture of Jesus, because he was bound to a column (Benton and DiYanni 38). The small prophet in the bottom right hand corner just seems to take up room where there was not much detail with out him. After discussing both Renaissance paintings and Mannerist paintings it goes to show that during the Renaissance times the artist cared more about the realistic details that were put into the art. Unlike in Parmigianinos painting of the Madonna she gives her an unrealistically long neck and fingers. During the Renaissance it was all about the Church and representing it, once the sack of Rome happened in 1527 that is when everything went down hill and people began to paint in the distorted, uneven manner of Mannerism. In both the Madonna of the Rocks and the Madonna of the Meadows there is a sense of peace for them both being out in nature where everything is pure. Also they both seem happier; the expressions on the faces seem less concerned as in Parmigianinos. Benton, Janetta Rebold, and Robert DiYanni. Art and Cultures: An Introduction to the Humanities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education., 2005. Jcsatterlee. Raphaels Madonna of the Meadows. Online Posting. 5 Jan. 2006. Blogger: Looking for the Artist in Me.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Citizens United Case Free Essays

In January 2008, Citizens United released a documentary that was critical of Senator Hilary Clinton and planned to run commercials of it at that time. However, through the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, also known as the McCain-Feingold Act which â€Å"prohibits corporations and unions from using their general treasury funds to make independent expenditures for speech that is an ‘electioneering communication’ or for speech that expressly advocates the election or defeat of a candidate†, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia ruled that the commercials violated the act. The case was brought up to the Supreme Court and would be one of the more important cases about the First Amendment with a controversial decision. We will write a custom essay sample on Citizens United Case or any similar topic only for you Order Now On March 24, 2009, the Supreme Court took oral arguments from Malcolm Stewart, then Deputy Solicitor General representing the Federal Election Commission. He pointed out that with the current laws in place for the campaign-finance system, even a book that had the same content as the documentary would be banned. An even more disturbing point that Stewart made was that the government could ban a book that has just one sentence about candidate advocacy. This caused the Supreme Court to ask the parties to reargue the case due to two cases that Stewart used: Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce, a statute that prohibited a corporation to use its funds for or against a political candidate, and McConnell v. Federal Election Commission, the decision that upheld the constitutionality of the McCain-Feingold law. The reason for rearguing the case was to determine if they, the justices, should overrule those two decisions. The court reversed the ruling from the lower court and overruled Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce and partially overruled McConnell v. Federal Election Commission. The overall ruling was 5-4 with Justice Steven’s dissent that was joined by Justice Breyer, Ginsberg, and Sotomayor. Justice Kennedy, part of the majority opinion, believed that â€Å"If the First Amendment  has any force, it prohibits Congress from fining or jailing citizens, or associations of citizens, for simply engaging in political speech. † In general, the Justices in the majority opinion believed that the case was based mostly on the First Amendment. Due to freedom of speech, corporations, whom the Justices believed were counted as individuals, could not be denied their right to voice out their opinion on running officials. The justices that favored the ruling brushed aside the warnings that might result in overturning the lower court’s decision. The dissenting justices warned that treating a corporation’s right to speech to be the same as an individual human was dangerous. However, eight of the justices agreed that Congress can require corporations to disclose how much they spent and to have disclaimers in the absence of facts. Chief Justice Roberts, one of whom that was part of the majority opinion, believed that â€Å"the important principles of judicial restraint and  stare decisis  implicated in this case† had to be addressed. He believed that overturning a past decision, such as Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce and McConnell v. Federal Election Commission, in certain circumstances were necessary. Roberts stated that cases such as segregation and minimum wage would not be as of what they are today if it were not for judicial activism. Justice Stevens wrote a passionate dissent that was joined by the other three Justices who opposed the ruling. He stated that the Court’s ruling â€Å"threatens to undermine the integrity of elected institutions across the Nation. † Because corporations and the general public could now spend unlimited money to promote or demote politicians who are running for office anytime, Stevens fears that it would cause an large disturbance in the election process. Although the majority opinion did not touch the laws about direct contribution to the candidates, part of the argument was whether a direct contribution versus an indirect contribution was the same thing. The time between the case being introduced to the Supreme Court until the official ruling of the case created a large amount of publicity and different opinions. President Obama believed that the decision gave the corporations too much power to influence the election process. However, other politicians such as a Senate Republican leader, Mitch McConnell, believed that the First Amendment applied to corporations which would let corporations to voice out their opinions on campaigning officials. The fundamental question here is whether the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission a good decision or a bad decision. I personally feel that the arguments from both sides were valid. The fact that Congress essentially denied a form of free speech from a corporation is unconstitutional in my opinion. However, my opinion in corporations becoming involved in political campaigns where they might have a large impact on how people view a certain politician is that it is not fair. I believe that the decision made by the Supreme Court was good in part of retaining the First Amendment’s freedom of speech but bad in part of the campaigning process for politicians. The decision gives too much power to a corporation versus the general public. If a corporation was allowed to spend without limit in the elections, politicians could strategically support a topic that the corporation would benefit from. This would result in the corporation to have the power to directly contribute in the campaign by running their own ads that promotes the politician. Campaigning would then become a war of getting the support of many of the biggest corporations. This gives too much power to the corporations and essentially removes the voices of the general public. As Obama pointed out in his state of the union address in 2010, it would also give the power to foreign corporations to help fund a certain election. I strongly oppose any kind of foreign involvement in any political activity in the United States. With the potential of candidates to â€Å"sell-out† to corporations would just ruin the whole election process. With the potential of unlimited spending of corporations, not only would they be allowed to endorse a political candidate, but they would also be able to attack candidates such as the documentary made by Citizens United. With the current campaigning process, political candidates have created attack ads that give negative images of an opposing candidate. Now that corporations can voice their opinions, there may be an increase of these attack ads. Through an ethical standpoint, it ruins the integrity of the election process. The election process would not just become a fight between politicians to gain support from corporations but also a fight of who can destroy another candidate’s image to the public. It not only defaces the opposing candidate, but it shows how dirty a politician can be. The election process turns into an all-out fight between candidates who would deploy such a tactic. With the inclusion of corporations now, it would worsen the current state of the campaigning process. I see why the Justices would overrule the lower court’s decision due to the First Amendment. The argument made by Malcolm Stewart definitely gave the impression that the law was too restrictive in such a way that it banned any forms of view from a corporation of a political candidate. I would agree with how the law would be unconstitutional through Stewart’s argument; however, I would oppose it through an ethical view. A poll conducted by Washington Post showed that eight in ten poll respondents opposed the decision made by the Supreme Court. William Rehnquist, a former Supreme Court justice, also opposed the decision made by the court by joining the dissent made by Stevens. Sandra Day O’Connor, also another former Supreme Court justice, made a point that the checks and balances on campaign spending were demolished. However, O’Connor was an author of McConnell v. Federal Election Commission. The Supreme Court’s case about allowing the Westboro Baptist Church to protest at military funerals is similar to this case due to both cases involving the right to free speech. In both cases, the general public did not like the ruling; however, it made sense constitutionally. There may be alternatives that Congress can take in battling the problems of corporations being involved in political campaigns. Although the court overruled it, I believe that there should be some sort of regulation on how much a corporation could spend on a candidate. Instead of limiting the corporation’s freedom of speech, why can’t we limit how much they can endorse a candidate? One can argue that money is not speech, so limiting the amount a corporation could spend would be constitutional. Another way to tackle the problem is to let shareholders decide on the political expenditures made by a corporation, as Great Britain does. This would let a larger majority decide on what the corporation would do for political expenditures. However, even though it is still a larger pool of people, they probably will still act in the interest of the company due them be driven by profits. Now that the court has made its decision, corporations can now spend as much as they want on politics. Many problems would arise due to this; however, it would still be constitutional. I believe that the decision of overruling Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and partially overruling McConnell v. Federal Election Commission was good due to following the First Amendment. However through a practical stance, it would create a large possibility of corrupting the campaigning process. Bibliography Eggen, Dan. â€Å"Poll: Large majority opposes Supreme Court’s decision on campaign financing.   Washington Post17 February 2010, n. pag. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. ;http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/17/AR201 0021701151. html;. Hasen, Rick. â€Å"CHIEF JUSTICE ROBERTS’ CONCURRING OPINION IN CITIZENS UNITED: TWO MYSTERIESCHIEF JUSTICE ROBERTS’ CONCURRING OPINION IN CITIZENS UNITED: TWO MYSTERIES . â€Å"Election Law Blog. N. p. , 23 Janu ary, 2010. Web. 17 Feb 2012. ;http://electionlawblog. org/archives/015118. html;. â€Å"High-Court Hypocrisy. †Ã‚  Newsweek. 22 January 2010: n. page. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. ;http://www. thedailybeast. om/newsweek/2010/01/22/high-court-hypocrisy. html;. Liptak, Adam. â€Å"Justices, 5-4, Reject Corporate Spending LimitJustices, 5-4, Reject Corporate Spending Limit . †Ã‚  New York Times  21 January 2010, n. pag. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. ;http://www. nytimes. com/2010/01/22/us/politics/22scotus. html;. Liptak, Adam. â€Å"O’Connor Mildly Criticizes Court’s Campaign Finance Decision. †Ã‚  New York Times  26 January 2010, n. pag. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. ;http://thecaucus. blogs. nytimes. com/2010/01/26/oconnor-mildly-criticizes-courts-campaign-finance-decision/? p;. Robert, John. â€Å"Roberts, C. J. , concurring. † n. pag. Legal Information Institute. Web. 17 Feb 2012. ;http://www. law. cornell. edu/supct/html/08-205. ZC. html;. Scalia, Antonin. â€Å"Sc alia, J. , concurring. † n. pag. Legal Information Institute. Web. 17 Feb 2012. ;http://www. law. cornell. edu/supct/html/08-205. ZC1. html;. Smith, Bradley. â€Å"The Myth of Campaign Finance Reform. â€Å"National Affairs. N. p. , n. d. Web. 17 Feb 2012. ;http://www. nationalaffairs. com/publications/detail/the-myth-of-campaign-finance-reform;. How to cite Citizens United Case, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Possible Risks Which Affect Computer System free essay sample

Abstract The short report reveals about the possible risks that affecting the computer system in terms of data loss and malfunctioning of programs. By taking simple precautionary measures the unexpected hazards can be completely eliminated. The most significant preventive measure is timely backing up the data. The other involves physical safety and installation of anti-virus programs. One factor to be kept in mind is that without proper physical safety no data is safe, as the hardware parts including motherboard, processor, and storage system constitute a computer brain. Once the brain gets damaged the whole system is collapsed. Introduction Normally people never think of taking precautionary measures until they experience individual loss or feel the bitterness of unexpected disasters. This may also happen in most of the cases regarding back up processes against possible risks involved in information loss. There is no use of running after the data, which has already been a lost or taking bleak effort to regain it. We will write a custom essay sample on Possible Risks Which Affect Computer System or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page But one has to be vigilant regarding the backup process by learning from the drastic experiences of others. If one realize about the importance of information stored in the system and feel the perspiration to create and process the data associated with it, he will never let it go by silly causes. Firstly he would concern about the protection of information by all possible ways. This short report reveals about the possible risks involved in data loss and the ways to eliminating those risks. Possible Risks to the Data There are several risks, which cause the data in the computer to vanish or to corrupt. Therefore different backup processes are to be adopted to protect data from different risks. Only a few numbers of backup processes are capable to handle all the risks and protect data loss. Here is a short description about the commonly seen risks to PCs. Hardware Failure It is termed as the most significant risk that may affect the data storage system. If a person is well aware of hard disk failure he never forget to backup the data timely. Disk crash may lead the system with irrecoverable loss of data and valuable programs. The other hardware failures include memory errors; system-timing problems, resource conflicts and power loss can also corrupt the data or damage the important programs. Ensuring proper dust free and moisture free atmosphere, timely scanning of disk, supply of uninterrupted power will minimize the above risks. Software Failure There is also a possibility of data loss due to software errors. It may be the result of improper or ineffective software design. Due to lack of proper logic and effective coding the program on execution may get hanged and because of that the data may get corrupted. â€Å"Some software bugs may be even more damaging, even causing the loss of files unrelated to them. † (SF). But rarely it happens. This risks can be eliminated by using of the trustful and reliable software. File System Corruption This problem generally comes due to the improper maintenance of system disks. If the disk is not scanned regularly there is a risk of transforming file structure used to contain information files and programs. It may cause damage of data and ultimately loss. Accidental Deletion It happens by simple mistakes of human as, rarely, important files may accidentally be deleted from the hard disk. By taking certain protection techniques and undeletion utilities the lost files can be recovered later. Proper backup of data in time and usage of proper undeletion utilities will negate the data loss from accidental deletion. Virus Infection Viruses are uninvited malicious programs that cause irrecoverable damages to the system files and important programs. The data loss can happen either due to direct Virus attacks or it can happen as a result to the efforts for removing viruses from computer system. By installing trustful anti-virus programs this problem can be eliminated. Other Risks Data loss due to physical activities of human such as Theft and Sabotage by dissatisfied employees is also a matter of concern. Same consequences are expected from the natural disasters such as Fire incidents, flood, earthquake, mud slide, hurricane, lightning strike, etc. at is on. Once the system is damaged physical no recovery can be expected from that. Therefore the only solution from the risk is to ensure physical safety of the system. So protect the systems from the possible physical hazards keep it physically as well as functionally safe. Work cited SFSource : Software Failures ; http://www. pcguide. com/care/bu/risks. htm

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Rose Water Recipe

Rose Water Recipe Rose water is one of several products your can buy or make that retains the fragrance of rose petals. It is used in perfumes and cosmetics, plus it has slightly astringent properties, so it makes an excellent facial toner. Because the commercial process used to make rose water is labor intensive and requires a lot of roses, its an expensive product to buy. However, if you have roses, you can make your own rose water quite easily. Its an easy example of distillation, an important chemical separation and purification process. Rose Water Materials rose petalswatersmall pancotton balls Experiment with different types of roses, since each rose has its own characteristic scent. Damask rose has the classic rose scent, but some roses smell like citrus fruit, spices, or licorice.The resulting rose water wont smell exactly the same as the original flowers because distillation only captures some of the volatile compounds present in the petals. There are other methods used to capture other essences, such as solvent extraction and more complex distillations. Directions Place the rose petals in a small pan.Add enough water to just barely cover the petals.Gently boil the water.Collect the steam that boils off using a cotton ball. You may wish to place the cotton ball on a fork or hold it with tongs, to avoid getting burned. Once the cotton ball is wet, remove it from the steam and squeeze it out over a small jar. This is the rose water.You can repeat the process to collect more steam.Store your rose water in a sealed container, away from direct sunlight or heat. You can refrigerate it to keep it fresh longer. Large Scale Rose Water Recipe Are you ready for a more advanced version of the project? If you have a few quarts of rose petals, you can collect much more rose water using a slightly more complex home steam distillation apparatus: 2-3 quarts rose petalswaterice cubespot with rounded lidbrickbowl that fits inside pot Place the brick in the center of the pot. There is nothing magical about the brick. Its purpose is simply to hold the collection bowl above the surface of the roses.Put the rose petals in the pot (around the brick) and add enough water to barely cover the petals.Set the bowl on top of the brick. The bowl will collect the rose water.Invert the lid of the pot (turn it upside down), so the rounded part of the lid dips into the pot.Heat the roses and water to a gentle boil. Place ice cubes on the top of the lid. The ice will cool the steam, condensing the rose water inside the pot and making it run down the lid and drip into the bowl.Continue gently boiling the roses and adding ice as needed until you have collected the rose water. Dont boil off all the water. Youll collect the most concentrated rose water in the first few minutes. After that, it will become more and more dilute. Turn off the heat when you notice the condensation isnt as rose-scented as you would like. You can collect be tween a pint and quart of rose water in 20-40 minutes using 2-3 quarts of rose petals. Other Floral Scents This process works with other floral essences, too. Other flower petals that work well include: honeysucklelilacvioletshyacinthirislavender You can experiment with mixing the scents to make custom fragrances. While rose water, violet water, and lavender water are edible and safe for use in cosmetics, some other types of flowers are only good as fragrances and shouldnt be applied directly to the skin or ingested. Safety Notes This is a fun project for kids, but adult supervision is required because boiling water and steam are involved. Kids can collect flowers and squeeze liquid from cooled cotton balls.If you are using the rose water (or violet or lavender water) for cooking or cosmetics, be sure to use flowers that are free of pesticides. Many gardeners spray flowers with chemicals or feed them with systemic pesticides. For a simple fragrance project, its fine to simply rinse off the flower petals to remove any residue, but avoid using chemically treated flowers for food projects or cosmetics. Learn More Design Your Own PerfumeSolid Perfume RecipeSafety Tips for Making Perfume

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Biography of El Cid, Medieval Spanish Hero

Biography of El Cid, Medieval Spanish Hero El Cid (1045–July 10, 1099), whose birth name was Rodrigo Dà ­az de Vivar (or Bibar), is a Spanish national hero, a mercenary soldier who fought for the Spanish king Alfonso VII to liberate parts of Spain from the Almoravid dynasty and eventually captured the Muslim caliphate of Valencia and ruled his own kingdom. Fast Facts: El Cid Known For: National hero of Spain, mercenary soldier against Christian and Muslims, ruler of ValenciaBirth Name: Rodrigo Dà ­az de Vivar (or Bibar)Born: c. 1045 near Burgos, SpainParents: Diego Lainez and a daughter of Rodrigo AlvarezDied: July 10, 1099 in Valencia, SpainEducation: Trained in the Castilian court of Sancho IISpouse: Jimena (m. July 1074)Children: Cristina, Maria, and Diego Rodriguez Rodrigo Dà ­az de Vivar was born into a chaotic period in Spanish history when much of the southern two-thirds of the Iberian peninsula had been conquered by Islamic forces during the Arab conquest beginning in the 8th century CE. In 1009, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate collapsed and disintegrated into competing city-states, called taifa. The northern third of the peninsula was broken into principalities- Leà ³n, Castile, Navarre, Barcelona, Asturia, Galacia, and others- who fought each other and their Arab conquistadors.  Islamic rule in Iberia varied from place to place, as did the borders of the principalities, but the last city to be liberated by the Christian Reconquista was the Emirate of Granada in 1492.   Early Life El Cid was born Rodrigo Dà ­az de Vivar or Ruy Dà ­az de Vivar in the town of Vivar in the Castilian principality near Burgos, Spain in about 1045. His father was Diego Lainez, a soldier in the battle at Atapuerco in 1054, which was fought between the brothers King Ferdinand I of Leà ³n (Ferdinand the Great, ruled 1038–1065) and King Garcà ­a Snchez III of Navarre (r. 1012–1054). Some sources report that Diego was a descendant of Lain Calvo, a legendary duumvir (magistrate) in the Court of Ordoà ±o II (King of Galacia, ruled 914–924). Although her name is not known, Diegos mother was a niece of the Castilian diplomat Nuà ±o Alvarez de Carazo (1028–1054) and his wife Doà ±a Godo; she named her son after her father, Rodrigo Alvarez. Diego Laniez died in 1058, and Rodrigo was sent to be the ward of Ferdinands son Sancho who resided at his fathers court in Castile, then part of Leà ³n. There Rodrigo likely received formal schooling in the schools which had been built by Ferdinand, learning how to read and write, as well as training in the use of arms, horsemanship, and the art of the chase. He may have been trained to arms by Pedro Ansurez, a Castilian count (1037–1119), known to have been in residence at Ferdinands court at the time. Military Career In 1065, Ferdinand died and his kingdom was divided up between his sons. The eldest, Sancho received Castile; the second, Alfonso, Leà ³n; and the region of Galicia was carved out of the northwest corner to create a separate state for Garcà ­a. The three brothers proceeded to fight one another for the entire kingdom of Ferdinand: Sancho and Alfonso together fended off Garcia and then fought each other. El Cids first military appointment was as standard-bearer and commander of troops for Sancho. Sancho emerged victoriously and reunited their fathers possessions under his control in 1072. Sancho died childless in 1072, and his brother Alfonso VI (ruled 1072–1109) inherited the kingdom. Having fought for Sancho, Rodrigo now found himself in an awkward situation with the Alfonso administration. According to some records, the breach between Rodrigo and Alfonso was healed when Rodrigo married a woman named Jimena (or Ximena), a member of a high-ranking Asturian family in the mid-1070s; some reports say she was Alfonsos niece. A 14th-century romance written about El Cid said he killed Jimenas father the Count of Gomez de Gormaz in battle, after which she went to Ferdinand to beg for redress. When Ferdinand refused to pay, she demanded Rodrigos hand in marriage which he willingly gave. El Cids main biographer, Ramà ³n Menà ©ndez Pidal, thinks that is unlikely since Ferdinand died in 1065. Whoever she was and however their marriage came about, Ximena and Rodrigo had three children: Cristina, Maria, and Diego Rodriguez, all of whom married into royalty. Diego was killed at the battle of Consuega in 1097. Despite his presence serving as a magnet for Alfonsos opponents, Dà ­az served Ferdinand loyally for several years, while Ferdinand waged war against Almoravid invaders. Then, after leading an unauthorized military raid campaign into the Muslim-controlled taifa Toledo, which was a tributary kingdom of Leon-Castile, Dà ­az was exiled. Fighting for Saragossa Upon exile, Diaz went to the Muslim taifa Saragossa (also spelled Zaragoza) in the valley of the Ebro, where he served as a mercenary captain with considerable distinction. Saragossa was an independent Arab Muslim state in Al-Andalus, which at the time (1038–1110) was ruled by the Banu Hud.  He fought for the Huddid dynasty for almost ten years, scoring significant victories against both Muslim and Christian foes. Famous battles which El Cid is known for were the defeat of Count Berenguer Ramon II of Barcelona in 1082, and of King Sancho Ramirez of Aragon in 1084. When the Berber Almoravids invaded the peninsula in 1086, Alfonso recalled Diaz from exile. El Cid willingly returned and was instrumental in the defeat at Sagrajas in 1086. He stayed in favor with Alfonso for only a brief time: in 1089 he was exiled again. Rodrigo gained his nickname El Cid at some point during his military career, perhaps after his battles at Saragossa. The name El Cid is a Spanish dialect version of the Arabic word sidi, meaning lord or sir. He was also known as Rodrigo el  Campeador, the Battler. Valencia and Death After being exiled from Alfonsos court for the second time, El Cid left the capital to became an independent commander in the eastern part of the Iberian peninsula. He fought and extracted enormous amounts of tribute from the Muslim taifas, and, on June 15, 1094, he captured the city of Valencia. He successfully fought off two Almoravid armies who attempted to dislodge him in 1094 and 1097. He established himself as an independent prince in the region based at Valencia. Rodrigo Dà ­az de Vivar ruled Valencia until his death on July 10, 1099. The Almoravids recaptured Valencia three years later. El Cids Legends There are four documents which were written about El Cid during his lifetime or shortly thereafter. Two are Islamic, and three are Christian; none are likely to be unprejudiced. Ibn Alcama was a Moor from Valencia, who witnessed and wrote a detailed account of the loss of that province to El Cid called Eloquent Evidence of the Great Calamity. Ibn Bassam wrote a Treasury of the Excellences of the Spaniards, written in Seville in 1109. The Historia Roderici was written in Latin by a Catholic cleric sometime before 1110. The poem Carmen, written in Latin about 1090, extols the battle between Rodrigo and the Count of Barcelona; and the Poema del Cid, was written in Spanish about 1150. Later documents written long after El Cids life are even more likely to be fabulous legends rather than biographical sketches. Sources Barton, Simon. El Cid, Cluny and the Medieval Spanish Reconquista. The English Historical Review 126.520 (2011): 517–43.Barton, Simon and Richard Fletcher. The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.Fletcher, Richard A. The Quest for El Cid. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.Pidal, Ramà ³n Menà ©ndez. La Espaà ±a Del Cid. Trans. Murray, John and Frank Cass. Abington, England: Routledge, 2016.